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      漢語稱謂研究十年

      來源:普通話學習網    時間:2007-06-10

      漢語稱謂研究歷史悠久。20世紀90年代以來是這一研究蓬勃發展的時期。本文擬對此作一回顧,為今后的研究提供一點參考。

      這一時期的研究主要呈現如下特點:

      1、重視研究的實用性。研究者以《漢語學習》、《語文建設》為主要陣地,發表了一系列文章討論如何正確使用漢語稱謂,提出要規范新生稱謂,純潔漢語詞匯。有的稱謂詞使用模糊不清,研究者討論了正確的書寫形式和用法;有的對誤用、濫用的稱謂詞進行糾正;有的稱謂詞“舊瓶裝新酒”,在新時代產生了新的用法,研究者探源溯流;有的探討漢語禮貌稱謂,指導恰當使用尊稱、謙稱、對稱、他稱。在對外交流方面,探討漢語稱謂教學,研究稱謂的正確翻譯,指導外國留學生正確學習漢語,恰當使用漢語稱謂。同時,漢語稱謂研究也為古籍整理和辭書編纂提供了科學依據。

      2、重視漢語稱謂的文化性。漢語稱謂的文化因素研究是這個時期的熱點,李樹新《現代漢語稱謂詞與中國傳統文化》開創了這個時期研究的先河。隨著社會制度的更替,文化觀念的變革,平等原則和情感原則取代了等級原則成為現代漢語稱謂詞的主要原則。但由于中國原有文化傳統的影響,導致等級稱謂依然存在。稱謂詞有著深刻的文化烙印,它的歷史變遷反映了新舊文化觀念的變化。

      3、開始重視專書稱謂詞研究。在這個時期,專書的稱謂詞研究開始起步,論文逐漸增多。有的是全書稱謂詞研究,有的是對書中某個稱謂現象、某類詞的專題研究。研究者對專書的稱謂詞語加以系統的整理和考察,為斷代研究和宏觀研究提供了材料。

      4、重視稱謂的比較研究。開始重視共時和歷時的比較研究。所謂共時的比較研究,是指同時期的漢語與方言、外國語稱謂的比較,從而看出漢語稱謂構詞特點以及漢語婚姻制度和社會形式的獨特性;所謂歷時的比較研究,是指研究者從稱謂詞的歷史演變著眼,詳盡描述某個稱謂詞在各個時期的發展變化,并努力摸索其演變規律。

      5、重視社會調查,進行定量分析。稱謂研究以社會語言學理論為指導,通過社會調查獲得社會使用情況的第一手資料。新時期大多數調查者采用社會語言學家Milroy創立的社會網絡法,將業已存在的、小型的、自我封閉的、具有高密度和高復合度的社會群體作為調查單位。通過調查不同類型的會話者在不同的社交場景中所選用的稱謂,探討影響稱謂語選用的重要因素,包括說話人的身份、年齡、性別、社會階層、學歷、態度、社交情景,分析稱謂的社會使用狀況和發展趨勢,研究其文化內涵。

      6、研究材料范圍的擴大。較早的古代漢語稱謂研究大都集中于對上古文獻和近代小說,征引的材料也多集中于經書、小說和史書。隨著研究者視野的開闊,征引材料不斷擴大,小說、史書、詩文、佛經、雜著、金石碑帖、出土文獻等有關文獻,無不納入研究視野。這個時期研究者對金文、銘文、漢簡里的稱謂展開了研究,考釋詞義,探討文獻中的稱謂現象,為我們認識當時的漢語稱謂全貌提供了幫助。

      九十年代是稱謂專著研究的豐收期。袁庭棟《古人稱謂漫談》對古人稱謂作了比較全面的介紹,是目前為止對古人稱謂分析較為詳盡的專著。田惠剛《中西人際稱謂系統》運用比較法對中西人際稱謂系統作了跨學科研究,是我國第一部中西比較研究的稱謂專著。馬宏基、常慶豐《稱謂語》從社會語言學、文化語言學等多角度研究新時期的漢語稱謂。夏先培《左傳交際稱謂研究》是第一部系統研究古代專書中的稱謂和專題研究古代交際稱謂的專著,具有填補空白和開拓研究領域的意義。林美容《漢語親屬稱謂的結構分析》是一部臺灣學者研究稱謂詞的力作,采用數理人類學的方法,對主要是書面漢語的稱謂系統進行研究。

      在一些文學語言學、社會語言學專著中對漢語稱謂有所涉及的,主要是對姓名、親屬稱謂的研究。在一些詞匯研究的專著中涉及了若干稱謂詞的考釋,其中所涉及的稱謂問題盡管屬于零散的個案研究,但研究的成果卻是重點、難點上的突破,其價值不容忽視。

      九十年代是漢語稱謂辭書編纂的成熟期,有韓省之編《稱謂大詞典》、吉常宏編《漢語稱謂大詞典》。其中《漢語稱謂大詞典》收詞約30000余條,共3539千字,無論在規模上、學術價值上和實用價值上都超過了以往的辭書,堪稱稱謂詞典編纂史上的里程碑。

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