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      您現在的位置:普通話學習網 > 范讀音頻欄目 > 美聲欣賞 > 正文

      普通話美聲欣賞:西江月-遣興

      來源:普通話學習網
      作者:辛棄疾
        醉里且貪歡笑,
      要愁那得工夫。
      近來始覺古人書,
      信著全無是處。
      昨夜松邊醉倒,
      問松“我醉何如”。
      只疑松動要來扶,
      以手推松曰:“去!”

      【賞析】

      欣賞這首詞,我們似乎可以這樣說:品讀辛棄疾的詞,可從詞中品出更有韻味的戲劇來,雖然在寫詞中,恰如其分地引入戲劇性場景并非辛棄疾發明,但是在他手上得到了發揚光大,在他的詞中,這種情況十分常見。這是值得肯定的。

      “醉里且貪歡笑 ,要愁那得工夫。”通篇“醉”字出現了三次。難道詞人真成了沉湎醉鄉的“高陽酒徒”么?否。蓋因其力主抗金而不為南宋統治者所用,只好借酒消愁,免得老是犯愁。說沒工夫發愁,是反話,骨子里是說愁太多了,要愁也愁不完。

      “近來始覺古人書,信著全無是處。”才敘飲酒,又說讀書,并非醉后說話無條理。這兩句是“醉話”。

      “醉話”不等于胡言亂語。它是詞人的憤激之言。《孟子?盡心下 》:“盡信書,則不如無書。”本意是說古書上的話難免有與事實不符的地方,未可全信。辛棄疾翻用此語,話中含有另一層意思:古書上盡管有許多“至理名言”,現在卻行不通,因此信它不如不信。

      以上種種,如直說出來,則不過慨嘆“世道日非”而已。但詞人曲筆達意,正話反說,便有咀嚼不盡之味。

      下片寫出了一個戲劇性的場面。詞人“昨夜松邊醉倒”,居然跟松樹說起話來。他問松樹:“我醉得怎樣了?”看見松枝搖動,只當是松樹要扶他起來,便用手推開松樹,并厲聲喝道:“去!”醉憨神態,活靈活現。詞人性格之倔強,亦表露無遺。在當時的現實生活里,醉昏了頭的不是詞人,而是南宋小朝廷中那些紙醉金迷的昏君佞臣。哪怕詞人真醉倒了,也仍然掙扎著自己站起來,相比之下,小朝廷的那些軟骨頭們是多么的渺小和卑劣。

      辛棄疾的這首小詞,粗看,正如標題所示,是一時即興之作。但如果再往里仔細一看,那么會發現作者是在借詼諧幽默之筆達發泄內心的不平。如再深入研究,我們還可洞察到作者是由于社會現實的黑暗而憂心忡忡,滿腹牢騷和委屈,不便明說而又不能不說,所以,只好借用這種方式,來暢快淋漓地渲泄他的真情實感。

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