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      堅實、明亮、飽滿——談單音節字詞的朗讀

      來源:普通話學習網

      普通話水平測試的第一個測試題項是“讀單音節字詞”,其目的是從微觀上檢測應試人語音“點”上標準程度的非應用性水平。整個題項共100個單字,應試人需要一個字一個字地朗讀。測試員通過音質聽辨,判斷其每個字的音節中聲母、韻母、聲調的發音標準程度,然后綜合決定該字發音是“正確”還是有“缺陷”,或者是“錯誤”,進而精確給出量化的分數。這里的“正確”要求相當高,它不同于語流中一個字的讀音正確。這里“正確”的內涵應該是方方正正、完完整整、清清楚楚,絲毫的馬虎都有可能將“正確”推向“缺陷”。要把一個單字讀得方方正正,免遭“缺陷”之名,關鍵是要把該字音節中的聲母、韻母、聲調讀得完美正確。為此筆者提出單音節字詞的朗讀要求,這就是“堅實、明亮、飽滿”。

      所謂“堅實”,是指聲母的發音要有力度、有彈性、時值要短、干凈利索。要達到這樣的要求,前提是發音準確,基礎是發音熟練。聲母要發得準確,得熟悉并掌握聲母的發音部位和發音方法。比如發唇齒清擦音f,應是上齒和下唇內側輕輕觸碰,如果觸碰重了,擦音性質就會受到影響,如果觸碰點從下唇內側移至下唇外側,發音器官肌肉的緊張點就會發生偏移,進而影響到標準音質。聲母要發得熟練,關鍵在強化訓練。強化訓練的形式多種各樣,如無聲口腔操、有聲繞口令等形式操練,都是有效而實用的。

      所謂“明亮”,是說韻母發音時,要注意韻頭、韻腹、韻尾三者之間的比例關系。韻母中的韻腹應該最突出,發音既要重又要響又要長,使整個音節凸現出一個明晰的亮點。為使韻腹能夠突出,韻頭和韻腹就需要相應發得弱一些輕一些短一些。除此之外,還需要把握韻頭、韻腹、韻尾三者之間的聯系。韻頭、韻腹、韻尾的發音過程,并不是各自獨立的斷裂的發音過程,而是從頭至腹再至尾連續滑動、漸進糅合的發音過程,最終韻頭、韻腹、韻尾連成了一個沒有任何痕跡的整體。這樣發出的韻母,聲音不但是明亮的,而且也一定是飽滿的。要達到這樣的效果,在了解韻母內部結構的基礎上,還必須熟悉所有復韻母和所有鼻韻母各自單獨的發音動程圖,然后分別進行動程發音強化訓練。實踐證明抒情式歌唱練習,是一種體會韻腹發音“明亮”及體會韻母發音“飽滿”的有效訓練形式。

      “飽滿”,除了指韻頭、韻腹、韻尾發音的連續性和整體性之外,還指韻尾收音的到位及聲調調形和調值的完整等等。如果一個音節的結束音素讀不好,整個音節的發音就會顯得不飽滿。普通話音節的韻尾音素,有元音音素和輔音音素兩種類型,元音音素韻尾為i、u、(o),輔音音素韻尾為n、ng。由于韻尾較之韻腹發音弱、輕、短些,我們切不可為了收音的到位,而將韻尾i、u、(o)發得如同作為單韻母時的一樣,否則發音會從“飽滿”變成“膨脹”,進而形成“死板”。韻尾i、u、(o)的舌位,應該比作為單韻母時的i、u、(o)的舌位低些、央些。輔音韻尾n、ng,雖然較韻腹發音也弱、輕、短些,但其發音部位仍然清晰可辨,n的發音部位在口腔前部的上齒齦,ng的發音部位在口腔后部的軟腭。發音部位觸碰處的兩個發音器官發音時切切注意不能分離,否則發音就會顯得不飽滿。

      聲調發音貫穿于音節的全過程,其作用和地位不可小視。外國人學說普通話洋腔洋調,主要就是因為聲調這道關卡他們過不去。調型和調值是聲調的兩個重要要素,二者要統籌兼顧,不可偏廢。比如發陰平調,發成44或33,雖然調型正確了,但調值低了,因而整個聲調就不會飽滿。還有一種情況,應試人由于發音較快,音節和音節之間相互影響,使調型和調值變形走樣,導致發音不夠飽滿。

      單音節字詞朗讀的三個要求“堅實、明亮、飽滿”,雖然可以分別對應著“聲母、韻母、聲調”,但由于聲、韻、調在音節中的客觀相互影響,總會產生一些細微的變化。所以,我們在把握聲、韻、調各自發音要求的基礎上,還應從音節的角度,從整體上全面地辯證地去把握“堅實、明亮、飽滿”的要求。在知曉理論的同時,更應注重實踐,只有這樣,我們才有可能把單字朗讀得方方正正、完完整整、清清楚楚,進而與“缺陷”無緣。

      江蘇泰州師專 何廣見?摘自江蘇語言文字網

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